Table of contents:
- Bronchitis during pregnancy: signs, causes, treatment of bronchitis in pregnant women
- Causes and risk factors
- How to treat bronchitis in pregnant women
Video: Bronchitis During Pregnancy: Treatment In 1, 2, 3 Trimesters, Consequences
2023 Author: Rachel Wainwright | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-06-04 23:24
Bronchitis during pregnancy: signs, causes, treatment of bronchitis in pregnant women
The content of the article:
- Causes and risk factors
- How to treat bronchitis in pregnant women
Treatment of bronchitis during pregnancy is somewhat complicated by the fact that the use of some of the drugs is contraindicated during this period, since it can have adverse consequences for the baby.
The disease can be a dangerous possibility of intrauterine infection of the child, bringing the uterus into tone with the threat of miscarriage, hypoxia of the developing fetus (especially in obstructive bronchitis in a pregnant woman), the formation of developmental anomalies, the birth of a child with insufficient body weight.
The appearance of signs of bronchitis during pregnancy is the reason for immediate medical attention.
Causes and risk factors
Bronchitis is a disease in which the inflammatory process occurs in the bronchial mucosa. The main reasons for its occurrence are infections (bacterial, viral, fungal), in addition, bronchitis can occur under the influence of allergens, chemical vapors on the bronchial mucosa.
A risk factor for developing the disease is prolonged inhalation of too cold, hot or dry air. Other factors include active and passive smoking, anomalies in the development of the nasopharynx, alcohol abuse, exposure to adverse environmental factors, the presence of industrial hazards, hypothermia, as well as frequent infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract, decreased immunity, genetic predisposition.
The main manifestation of bronchitis is cough, in very rare cases this symptom is absent. It is aggravated in the morning, after physical exertion, by inhaling cold air. The cough at the onset of the disease is usually dry, later sputum begins to separate.
Bronchitis can be acute or chronic. The acute form lasts up to 3-4 weeks. With chronic symptoms, symptoms persist for at least 3 months a year for 2 years or more, the disease proceeds with periods of exacerbation and remission. Exacerbations of chronic bronchitis often occur during pregnancy.
Bronchitis can also be obstructive and non-obstructive. In the non-obstructive form of the disease, spasms in the bronchi are not observed. The phlegm is usually light, it is excreted without difficulty, the respiratory function does not suffer. In obstructive bronchitis, inflammation leads to swelling of the mucous membrane, accumulation of sputum in the lumen of the bronchi, while the lumen narrows, breathing becomes difficult, and the cough becomes unproductive.
In women, during the disease, the general condition worsens, the body temperature may rise, but slightly (as a rule, not higher than 38 ° C). In acute bronchitis, nasal congestion, discharge from the nasal cavity, and soreness are often observed. In addition, there is a headache, daytime sleepiness, lethargy, and decreased performance.
With the transition of the disease to a chronic form, in addition to the mucous membrane, the deeper layers of the bronchial wall can be involved in the pathological process, the cleansing function of the organ is disturbed.
With the defeat of the small bronchi, as well as obstruction, shortness of breath occurs, there is increased sweating, there is pain behind the sternum. Breathing is difficult, may be accompanied by whistling sounds.
Convalescence with bronchitis during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy can be delayed due to stagnation of sputum, when the enlarged uterus pushes the diaphragm, the mobility of the latter decreases, and the cough becomes ineffective.
To make a diagnosis, complaints and anamnesis are collected, an objective examination, a laboratory study of blood, sputum. To clarify the diagnosis of bronchitis in the expectant mother, spirometry may be required. X-ray examination and bronchoscopy are rarely performed when the diagnosis is difficult.
Differential diagnosis is carried out with bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia.
How to treat bronchitis in pregnant women
It is important to follow all the recommendations of the attending physician and refuse self-medication. Any medicines and methods for bronchitis during pregnancy can be used only after consulting a doctor. Otherwise, it can pose a danger to both the health of the pregnant woman and the developing fetus.
Patients with obstructive bronchitis and / or with a high risk of complications are shown hospitalization. In other cases, treatment is carried out at home. At elevated body temperature, bed rest is indicated. The room where the patient is located should be often ventilated, and the air must be humidified, which will create optimal conditions for a speedy recovery.
With bronchitis of an infectious etiology, depending on the type of pathogen, antibacterial, antiviral, antimycotic agents can be prescribed. For the treatment of bronchitis during pregnancy up to the 2nd trimester, the use of antibiotics is undesirable, but in some cases they are necessary - when it comes to a prolonged course of bronchitis, a high risk of complications, the risk of infection of the fetus, the transition of the disease to pneumonia. What antibiotics can be used by a woman during pregnancy, as well as whether it is permissible to use these drugs in the early stages of bearing a child, is decided in each individual case by the attending physician.
To improve the excretion of sputum, mucolytics, expectorants may be prescribed. A number of mucolytic drugs are prescribed only from the 2nd trimester, since they are contraindicated for the treatment of bronchitis during pregnancy in the 1st trimester.
When the body temperature rises, the use of antipyretic drugs may be required. They should be prescribed to expectant mothers with great care.
To facilitate the elimination of sputum and relieve inflammation, inhalations are prescribed, which can be alkaline, saline. They should be carried out no earlier than 1-1.5 hours after eating, the duration of the procedure should be 5-10 minutes, usually 1-2 procedures are performed per day. After inhalation, you should not eat for an hour.
Any medicines, including traditional medicine, should be taken only under medical supervision
With bronchitis during pregnancy, it is not recommended to resort to mustard plasters, banks, and warming compresses.
Patients are shown an abundant drinking regimen (if there is no tendency to edema, if they are, the drinking regimen is discussed with the attending physician). You can drink tea with honey and / or lemon, rosehip infusion, vegetable, fruit and berry juices, decoctions and herbal infusions.
If there is no objection from the attending physician (and the doctor leading the pregnancy, if these are different doctors), then in addition to the main therapy, folk remedies can be used.
An effective mixture that promotes the elimination of phlegm is a remedy made from honey (1 part), chopped apple (1 part), chopped onion (2 parts). The ingredients are mixed, the product is used in a tablespoon several times a day.
Products based on marshmallow, thermopsis, licorice, sage, ivy and other medicinal plants help.
You can relieve the symptoms of acute bronchitis with a flour and honey compress. The ingredients are mixed in equal proportions, the compress is placed on the back in the projection of the bronchi, wrapped in a warm scarf or towel and kept for an hour.
As soon as acute symptoms have subsided, it is recommended to spend more time outdoors.
To prevent the development of bronchitis while carrying a child, it is recommended to carry out all the necessary vaccinations in preparation for pregnancy, proper nutrition, cessation of smoking and alcohol abuse, avoidance of hypothermia, occupational hazards, sufficient physical activity, adherence to the rules of personal hygiene, timely treatment of diseases, on background of which bronchitis may develop. Pregnant women are advised to stay less in crowded places; in contact with patients, a gauze bandage should be worn.
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Anna Aksenova Medical journalist About the author
Education: 2004-2007 "First Kiev Medical College" specialty "Laboratory Diagnostics".
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