Kidney Cancer - Symptoms, Causes, Stages, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

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Kidney Cancer - Symptoms, Causes, Stages, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis
Kidney Cancer - Symptoms, Causes, Stages, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Video: Kidney Cancer - Symptoms, Causes, Stages, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Video: Kidney Cancer - Symptoms, Causes, Stages, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis
Video: Kidney Cancer Symptoms and Treatment 2023, December

Kidney cancer

Brief description of the disease

Kidney cancer
Kidney cancer

In the structure of oncological diseases, kidney cancer ranks 10th, but it should be borne in mind that in recent years there has been a threefold increase in the number of patients suffering from malignant tumors in the kidneys. Men get sick more often than women, which, apparently, is explained by the spread of smoking among the male part of the population and more harmful working conditions. Particularly alarming is the fact that kidney cancer treatment is increasingly required for young people, although earlier this disease mainly affected the elderly.

The most common form of the disease is renal cell carcinoma. It accounts for over 40% of reported cases. Much less common formations in the renal pelvis and ureter (20% each). Sarcomas (mesenchymal formations) make up no more than 10% of the number of registered cases.

Causes of the disease

Kidney cancer, which is now seen in people of all ages, is caused by:

  • disorders at the genetic level, in particular, the loss of a segment of the third chromosome;
  • Hippel-Lindau syndrome and other hereditary diseases;
  • immunodeficiency states;
  • uncontrolled intake of diuretics, especially diuretics;
  • diabetes;
  • malnutrition with a predominance of fatty, fried foods;
  • ionizing radiation;
  • smoking is one of the main reasons a person gets kidney cancer. Metastases in smokers are much more numerous, and the disease itself, as a rule, is rather difficult. In general, people who smoke are 60% more likely to develop kidney cancer than those who do not have nicotine cravings and do not interact with smokers.

Stages of kidney cancer

The severity of the disease is determined by comparing healthy and diseased cells.

Stage I - tumor cells differ slightly from normal, healthy cells of renal tissue. Cancer develops slowly, the prognosis is good.

Stage II - moderately differentiated - the most common form of cancer. Healthy and diseased cells have distinct differences, but the tumor still grows slowly and is treatable.

Stage III - the tumor extends beyond the kidney, affecting nearby lymph nodes.

Stage IV - undifferentiated kidney cancer. The affected cells differ significantly from healthy ones, indicating an aggressive form of the disease. At stage IV, kidney cancer metastases to neighboring organs (lungs, liver) and distant lymph nodes. Treatment of kidney cancer at this stage is significantly difficult or even impossible.

It should be noted that by highlighting the stages of the kidney, doctors can not only classify the disease, but also determine the size of the tumor, its localization, thereby increasing the survival rate of patients.

Kidney cancer - metastases

In the later stages, the tumor is prone to metastasis by both hematogenous and lymphogenous pathways. Most often, metastases are detected in the lungs, then in the bones, liver and brain. Brain damage is most typical for stage IV.

Kidney cancer - symptoms

In the early stages, kidney cancer can be completely asymptomatic. The presence of a tumor can be determined either by chance or in the presence of certain indirect signs. As the tumor grows, the symptoms appear much more clearly. The main ones include:

  • the presence of blood in the urine;
  • swelling in the lumbar region, palpable on palpation;
  • weakness, weight loss, lack of appetite;
  • deterioration of the general condition;
  • a sharp rise in temperature for no apparent reason;
  • increased blood pressure;
  • anemia;
  • pain in the kidney area.

Diagnosis of the disease

Kidney cancer, the metastases of which have spread to neighboring organs and distant lymph nodes, is easily diagnosed. The situation is different in the early stages of the disease, when the symptoms of kidney cancer are easily confused with signs of other diseases. Modern methods of medical imaging play a huge role in making the correct diagnosis:

  • X-ray diagnostics;
  • ultrasound procedure;
  • magnetic resonance imaging;
  • radioisotope scintigraphy.

In addition, patients are assigned a biopsy and urine test.

Kidney cancer treatment

Kidney cancer treatment
Kidney cancer treatment

The choice of treatment method depends on the stage of the kidney cancer, the size of the tumor, the presence of metastases, and some other important factors. In most cases, doctors use surgical intervention, and the operation is prescribed even for metastases, since this can significantly extend the patient's life.

In the early stages, kidney cancer, the symptoms of which are absent or only slightly manifested, can be cured with the help of organ-preserving surgeries, but even in this case, the removal of tumor thrombi and removal of regional lymph nodes, excluding metastasis, is a prerequisite.

In the later stages, it is advisable to carry out radical nephrectomy (removal of the kidney, including when the tumor grows into neighboring organs) or laparoscopic nephrectomy (allows you to achieve a more accurate cut off of the organ and thereby reduces the duration of the recovery period, but requires special equipment and highly qualified clinic staff). Radiation therapy, hormone therapy and chemotherapy are practically not used in the treatment of kidney cancer, as they show low efficiency. Immunotherapy with interleukin-2, alpha-interferon and 5-fluorouracil helps to increase the survival time.

A few words about how likely it is to successfully cure kidney cancer. The prognosis in this case depends on the stage of the tumor process and the degree of differentiation of cancer cells. If metastasis has affected the renal vein, the prognosis is poor. The same situation develops with metastases in distant lymph nodes. In all other cases, the forecasts are more or less favorable.

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The information is generalized and provided for informational purposes only. At the first sign of illness, see your doctor. Self-medication is hazardous to health!