Estrogens: Normal In Women, Hormone Functions

Table of contents:

Estrogens: Normal In Women, Hormone Functions
Estrogens: Normal In Women, Hormone Functions

Video: Estrogens: Normal In Women, Hormone Functions

Video: Estrogens: Normal In Women, Hormone Functions
Video: Estrogen | Reproductive system physiology | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy 2023, September

The hormone estrogen: the norm and deviations from it

The content of the article:

  1. Estrogen rate in women
  2. Types of estrogens
  3. Action in the body

    1. Impact on the organs of the reproductive system
    2. Effect on other target organs
    3. Influence on a woman's appearance
  4. Deviation from the norm


  5. Hypoestrogenemia
  6. Estrogen in men
  7. Video

A woman's body produces estrogens and progesterone, the two main types of female sex hormones. They have the greatest impact on the condition and functioning of the female reproductive system. Estrogen is not one hormone, but several, the main of which is estradiol; a generic name is used for convenience.

Estrogen is not a single hormone, but a generic name for three female steroid hormones
Estrogen is not a single hormone, but a generic name for three female steroid hormones

Estrogen is not a single hormone, but a generic name for three female steroid hormones

Estrogen rate in women

The level of estradiol in the blood depends on the phase of the menstrual cycle. Therefore, it is recommended to take tests 7 days after ovulation, this is about 21 days of the cycle. Different norms correspond to different phases of the menstrual cycle:

Cycle phase Normal values, pmol / l
Follicular 68-1269
Ovulatory 131-1655
Luteal 91-861

During menopause, estrogen production begins to decline. Therefore, after menopause, the amount of estradiol up to 73 pmol / l is considered the norm.

Types of estrogens

Estrogens is the name of a group of three types of female steroid hormones:

  1. Estradiol is basic. Most of it is produced in ovarian follicles under the influence of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone. To a lesser extent, estradiol is produced by the adrenal cortex, liver, muscle and adipose tissue.
  2. Estriol is produced by the placenta during pregnancy.
  3. Estrone - becomes mainstream after menopause. It continues to be produced by adipose tissue even after the ovarian function has died out.

Action in the body

Estrogens act through the presence of estrogen receptors that the hormone binds to. Receptors are found in the uterus, mammary glands, urogenital tract, as well as in peripheral tissues - heart, blood vessels, brain, bones.

Impact on the organs of the reproductive system

The main function of estrogens is to affect the genitals. They are responsible for the formation of sexual characteristics, the regulation of menstruation, preparation for pregnancy and lactation.

Name Explanation

Under the influence of estradiol, secondary sexual characteristics are formed:

• the breast is formed and enlarged;

• female-pattern hairiness appears;

• the menstrual cycle is established;

• there is a redistribution of adipose tissue - rounded hips, thin waist, narrow shoulders.

Reproductive function

Estradiol is responsible for the maturation of the egg in the follicle, as well as for its release from the ovary into the fallopian tube (ovulation). In addition, the hormone is responsible for the growth of vaginal epithelial cells and the production of mucus, which creates optimal conditions for the survival of sperm. Without this, it is impossible to get pregnant, which is why a normal hormone level is so important when planning a pregnancy.

Endometrial proliferation and rejection Estradiol activates the proliferation of the endometrium - the proliferation of glands, stroma and blood vessels in its surface layer. This is necessary to restore the endometrium after the next menstruation. Thus, estradiol is involved in the regulation of the menstrual cycle.
Effect on the urogenital tract Under the influence of estradiol, the growth and regeneration of the epithelium occurs, which maintains the normal state of the mucous membrane of the vagina and bladder. In addition, hormones affect the condition of the ligamentous apparatus. This keeps the pelvic organs in place, prevents uterine prolapse, urinary incontinence.

Effect on other target organs

The effect of estrogens is not limited to just the genitals. In total, there are more than 400 functions that estrogens perform. The most significant are the following:

Target organ Act
central nervous system Mood and emotional reactions are normalized. Cognitive abilities are stimulated - memory, thinking, attention.
Bone Strengthening bones, prevention of osteoporosis and pathological fractures. The hormone promotes the absorption of calcium, reduces its leaching from the bones.
Heart and blood vessels

The effect on the cardiovascular system has several components:

• the state of the vascular endothelium improves;

• prevents lipid deposition on the vascular wall;

• blood flow improves;

• the level of blood pressure is normalized;

• the strength of heart contractions increases.

Skin and hair

The growth and regeneration of the epithelium is stimulated. The skin becomes even, smooth, without rashes and wrinkles.

Blood coagulation system Estradiol has a procoagulant effect, that is, it increases blood clotting.
Water exchange There is a retention of water and sodium in peripheral tissues, which can provoke edema.

Influence on a woman's appearance

Under the influence of estrogen:

  • the figure becomes feminine - the waist becomes narrow, the hips are rounded and the chest increases;
  • the skin becomes elastic, even, radiant;
  • hair is shiny and thick.

Deviation from the norm

Deviation from the norm occurs in two variants - an increase and a decrease in the level of estradiol. Both conditions are dangerous to women's health and require treatment.


Hyperestrogenemia is an increase in the level of estradiol in the blood. This may be due to the following diseases:

  • overweight - an increased amount of hormones can be secreted in adipose tissue;
  • estrogen-secreting tumors;
  • liver pathology;
  • ovarian cyst;
  • pathology of the adrenal cortex.

Hyperestrogenemia can be suspected by the clinical picture. The following symptoms are characteristic:

  • irregular menstruation;
  • dyspeptic symptoms - nausea, vomiting;
  • bowel disruption - diarrhea or constipation;
  • emotional lability;
  • soreness of the mammary glands;
  • skin rashes;
  • weight gain - fatty tissue is deposited according to the female type.

However, the diagnosis cannot be confirmed by clinical manifestations. If you have these symptoms, you should consult a doctor and get tested.

If estrogen imbalance is suspected, laboratory diagnosis is necessary
If estrogen imbalance is suspected, laboratory diagnosis is necessary

If an estrogen imbalance is suspected, laboratory diagnosis is necessary


Hypoestrogenemia is a decrease in the level of estradiol in the blood. The most common cause of estrogen deficiency is menopause. Physiological menopause occurs in women over 48-50 years old. Early menopause is usually associated with the surgical removal of the uterus with the appendages. Less often, a sharp weight loss, a lack of animal fats in food, and excessive production of prolactin lead to hypoestrogenism.

Hypoestrogenemia has characteristic manifestations:

  • violation of the menstrual cycle - irregularity or absence of menstruation, their soreness;
  • acne, increased oily skin;
  • excessive hair growth - hair appears on the face, abdomen, around the nipples;
  • mood swings with a predominance of depressive symptoms;
  • increased fragility of bones, frequent fractures;
  • decreased sex drive.

Estrogen in men

Despite the fact that estrogen is a female hormone, it is produced in small quantities in the male body. Estradiol is secreted by the testes, adrenal cortex, and is also converted from testosterone in peripheral tissues under the influence of specific enzymes. The concentration of the hormone in the blood is kept constantly low.

Estrogens in men affect the following organs:

  • brain;
  • bones;
  • heart and blood vessels;
  • liver;
  • breasts.

Hormonal effects in men can be both physiological and pathological. It depends on the level of estradiol in the blood, as well as on the ratio with testosterone. When the estrogen balance is disturbed in the body, the corresponding symptoms appear - more often an excess than a deficiency.


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Anna Kozlova
Anna Kozlova

Anna Kozlova Medical journalist About the author

Education: Rostov State Medical University, specialty "General Medicine".

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