Table of contents:
- Prostate cancer
- General characteristics of the disease
- Prostate cancer symptoms
- Diagnosis of prostate cancer
- Stages of prostate cancer
- Prostate cancer treatment
Video: Prostate Cancer - Causes, Symptoms, Stages, Diagnosis, Treatment
2023 Author: Rachel Wainwright | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 05:19
General characteristics of the disease
Prostate cancer or prostate cancer is a malignant disease caused by hormonal imbalances in the body of a man, and in particular by increased testosterone levels.
Prostate cancer symptoms are most commonly diagnosed in men over 55. The exception is one of the most aggressive forms of prostate cancer - prostate sarcoma. It can also occur in young men.
The causes of prostate cancer have not been reliably studied to date. It is believed that an increase in testosterone levels and the formation of cancerous nodes - clear symptoms of prostate cancer - are associated with disturbances in the functioning of the human hypothalamic-pituitary system. They lead to general disruptions in the synthesis of hormones and to the formation of atypical cells. But the exact cause of these disorders is not known to medicine.
The factors that provoke the development of prostate cancer, in addition to age, also include a hereditary predisposition to the disease, the consumption of large amounts of animal fats, an unfavorable environmental situation, and the presence of chronic prostate adenoma in a man.
Prostate cancer is characterized by a slow course. Usually, at least 10 years pass from the moment of tumor formation to the development of metastases of prostate cancer. Afro-American men are more susceptible to the disease, and Asians are least prone to prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer symptoms
The early development of the disease is practically asymptomatic. With the growth of the tumor, the first symptoms of prostate cancer begin to appear - problems with urination. It can be difficult or rapid depending on the location and size of the tumor. In some forms of prostate cancer, the patient develops acute urinary retention.
When the tumor spreads outside the organ, prostate cancer may be accompanied by urinary incontinence, difficulty defecating, and the presence of blood in the stool. Symptoms of metastatic prostate cancer also include renal failure caused by tumor invasion into the ureteral orifices.
In the later stages of prostate cancer, the symptoms of the disease are caused by the massive spread of metastases to the bones, lymph nodes, liver, and lungs. As a result, a patient with metastases of prostate cancer may have severe pain, limited mobility, swelling, exhaustion and anemia.
Diagnosis of prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is tentatively diagnosed on the basis of patient complaints and the results of a digital rectal examination. It is carried out by a urologist and in case of detection of nodes in the prostate, the patient is sent for further examination.
The next step in diagnosing prostate cancer is a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test. An increased concentration of this specific protein in a man's blood is one of the symptoms of prostate cancer. Normally, the PSA level should not exceed 4 ng / ml.
With the help of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), you can get an accurate idea of the size, shape and location of the tumor. The final diagnosis of prostate cancer is established on the basis of biopsy data carried out by inserting an ultrasound probe with a needle through the patient's anus.
To determine the stage of prostate cancer, additional examinations are carried out: ultrasound, computed and magnetic resonance imaging of organs and lymph nodes of the pelvis, chest x-ray, computer scan of the bones of the skeleton.
Stages of prostate cancer
Depending on the extent of the spread of metastases of prostate cancer, 4 stages of the disease are distinguished.
Stage I and II prostate cancer are characterized by tumor localization within the prostate. In stage III prostate cancer, the tumor metastasizes to the nearest lymph nodes, organs and bones of the pelvis. Stage IV prostate cancer is characterized by extensive metastasis to distant organs and lymph nodes.
In addition to the classification of prostate cancer by stage, there is also the TNM letter system for differentiating tumors. "T" indicates the size of the tumor, "N" - the presence of metastases of prostate cancer in regional lymph nodes, and "M" - metastasis to other organs.
Prostate cancer treatment
At the stage of prostate cancer, when the tumor is within the organ, surgical treatment plays a major role. Cancer of the prostate gland at an early stage is stopped by radical prostatectomy - the complete removal of the prostate and nearby lymph nodes.
If the risk of recurrence of prostate cancer is high, the patient is referred for postoperative external beam irradiation. In addition to it, in the treatment of prostate cancer at stages I and II, brachytherapy is also used - local radiation irradiation with radioactive granules.
In the treatment of prostate cancer with metastases, the main method is hormone therapy. Its goal is to minimize testosterone levels in a man's body and thus stop the progression of prostate cancer.
Hormonal treatment for prostate cancer can be surgical, with complete removal of the testicles (orchiectomy), or medication. The second method of castration of a man is carried out with the help of injections of drugs that block the production of testosterone stimulating hormones in the pituitary gland. The maximum hormonal block in the treatment of prostate cancer is achieved by the combined use of both methods.
Hormonal treatment of prostate cancer can last up to 2 years, and only if the tumor is insensitive to drugs, a patient with prostate cancer metastases is sent for chemotherapy. It can be oral or injectable.
Severe pain syndrome is one of the most common complications of metastatic prostate cancer. A frequent practice in palliative (relieving) treatment of prostate cancer is the prescription of analgesics, from simple to prescription drugs, the so-called opiates.
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The information is generalized and provided for informational purposes only. At the first sign of illness, see your doctor. Self-medication is hazardous to health!
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