Hypertension 2 Degrees: Symptoms And Treatment, What Is It, Disability

Table of contents:

Hypertension 2 Degrees: Symptoms And Treatment, What Is It, Disability
Hypertension 2 Degrees: Symptoms And Treatment, What Is It, Disability

Video: Hypertension 2 Degrees: Symptoms And Treatment, What Is It, Disability

Video: Hypertension 2 Degrees: Symptoms And Treatment, What Is It, Disability
Video: Can High Blood Pressure Qualify for SSDI? | Citizens Disability 2023, June

Hypertension 2 degrees: symptoms, causes, treatment

The content of the article:

  1. Varieties of hypertension

    1. Essential hypertension
    2. Secondary hypertension
  2. What can be hypertension
  3. Stage and risk of hypertension
  4. Treatment of hypertension grade 2
  5. Major complications
  6. Disability with hypertension
  7. Video

"Hypertension of the 2nd degree" - this diagnosis is established in strictly defined cases, as it is characterized by specific figures of blood pressure. The presence of the second degree is said if the patient's systolic blood pressure (BP) exceeds 160, but does not reach 180, and the diastolic blood pressure is in the range of 100-110 mm Hg. Art.

Second-degree hypertension indicates the height of the disease
Second-degree hypertension indicates the height of the disease

Second-degree hypertension indicates the height of the disease

Hypertension is the household name for arterial hypertension, cardiovascular disease, the main symptom of which is a systematic increase in blood pressure.

The second degree is, in fact, the height of the disease. In this case, the patient notes quite frequent increases in pressure up to 180/110 mm Hg. Art. or consistently high numbers throughout the day, and sometimes at night.

Painful manifestations, in the overwhelming majority of cases, bother the patient only at the time of pressure increase. The constant presence of all symptoms is extremely rare and speaks of the ineffectiveness of the treatment or the malignancy of the disease.

Symptoms of grade 2 hypertension are:

  1. Headache. It can be permanent or intermittent, although, in general, it is a harbinger of an increase in blood pressure. More often localized in the occiput and crown. Some patients report equivalent manifestations: a feeling of constriction or throbbing in the head. Such pain is not effectively eliminated by analgesics, it is neutralized only by taking antihypertensive drugs.
  2. Feeling of "creeping", paresthesia, increased skin sensitivity.
  3. Noise, ringing in the ears.
  4. Hot flashes, sweating. During episodes of increased pressure, redness of the skin of the face, neck, and décolleté is often noted. Many patients complain of a feeling of heat, intolerance to stuffy rooms.
  5. Flashing flies before the eyes.
  6. Decreased performance.
  7. Pain in the left side of the chest, often stabbing.
  8. Unsteadiness of gait. Such a manifestation of the disease extremely rarely occurs with its stable course and appears, as a rule, with a sharp abrupt increase in blood pressure figures, against the background of a hypertensive crisis.
  9. Impaired memory, intellectual abilities. They are a complication of the disease: symptoms of discirculatory encephalopathy. They develop gradually over a long period of time. The maximum severity is reached in patients with a significant history of the disease, a malignant course of hypertension or against the background of complications in the form of cerebrovascular accidents.

The majority of patients with a stable increase in pressure report headache, tinnitus, and rapid fatigue as their daily complaints.

Varieties of hypertension

Hypertension is of two types: essential, that is, primary and secondary.

Essential hypertension

The reason cannot be identified, the origin of the disease is explained by the disruption of internal regulatory mechanisms.

It is quite difficult to treat such a disease, since its triggering factor is not reliably known. Usually, symptomatic therapy and treatment aimed at preventing the development of complications is used for primary hypertension. This hypertension is chronic, lifelong, however, properly selected pharmacotherapy helps to keep all painful manifestations under control.

Secondary hypertension

It is a complication of any diseases of the internal organs. Most often these are hormonal disorders, diseases of the central nervous system, diabetes mellitus, various kidney damage. An increase in blood pressure can be noted against the background of taking some pharmacological agents of both synthetic and natural origin.

This increase in pressure in the overwhelming majority of cases is cured if it is possible to neutralize the leading disease. This hypertension, in fact, is only one of the manifestations of the underlying disease, hence its second name - "symptomatic".

What can be hypertension

As mentioned above, the causes of hypertension can be either some diseases or breakdown of regulatory mechanisms at the highest level.

Nevertheless, there is a whole range of risk factors that can provoke the development of pathology in a predisposed patient:

  1. Unstable emotional background. Hypertension belongs to the classic psychosomatosis - diseases in the development of which psychological discomfort is the main provocateur. The most susceptible to the disease are irritable, hot-tempered people, characterized by increased anxiety, suspiciousness, and easily excitable.
  2. Excessive consumption of NaCl (table salt). With a systematic violation of the diet, the volume of circulating blood increases due to fluid retention, sclerotic changes in the walls of the arteries develop, and vascular regulation suffers.
  3. Physical inactivity. A sedentary lifestyle does not allow the cardiovascular system to actively adapt to stress and develop adequate mechanisms for responding to stress and physical overstrain.
  4. Smoking. Components of tobacco smoke damage receptors that read blood pressure on the walls of blood vessels from the inside, thereby disabling the regulatory system.
  5. Excessive physical or psycho-emotional stress.
  6. Chronic unfulfilled stress.
  7. Weighed down heredity.
  8. Male.
  9. Age over 55.
  10. Excessive body weight. With an increase in weight for every 10 kg, the blood pressure figures, on average, increase by 10 mm Hg. Art.

Stage and risk of hypertension

In addition to the degree, the stage and degree of risk are identified in hypertension.

The stage of the disease is determined by the involvement of various organs in the pathological process and the presence of concomitant clinical conditions:

  • Stage 1 - no concomitant changes;
  • Stage 2 - detection of violations in target organs (heart, brain, blood vessels, kidneys, organ of vision) in the absence of external manifestations of their damage;
  • Stage 3 - clinically significant changes in target organs, for example, heart attack, stroke, retinal detachment, renal failure, etc.

The risk of hypertension varies from 1 (minimal) to 4 (very high): this concept determines the likelihood of developing complications in each case.

The degree of risk is calculated based on the assessment of several factors:

  • the number of target organs affected;
  • the severity of concomitant pathology;
  • the presence and amount of FR.

So, for example, risk 3 (high) is diagnosed with a combination of grade 2 hypertension and more than three risk factors, and risk 4 - in the presence of diabetes mellitus or other significant concomitant clinical condition.

Excess weight is one of the main risk factors for hypertension
Excess weight is one of the main risk factors for hypertension

Excess weight is one of the main risk factors for hypertension

Hypertension grade 2, risk 2 (moderate) is determined in patients with no or no risk factors, but no more than two.

If the patient's pressure figures vary in the range of 160-180 / 100-110 mm Hg. Art. - the risk for it is set in the range of 2–4.

Treatment of hypertension grade 2

Treatment of the disease in this case includes not only therapy with special drugs, but also a mandatory change (modification) of the lifestyle:

  1. Limiting the consumption of table salt. This does not mean that it is necessary to completely abandon the salting of food. The maximum allowable daily amount of salt is a teaspoon without top.
  2. The introduction of systematic dosed physical activity. Excessive activity is fraught with the development of complications, since with hypertension the heart and blood vessels are initially in a state of increased tension.
  3. Weight loss.
  4. Normalization of the regime of work and rest.
  5. To give up smoking.

Pharmacotherapy of hypertension is prescribed exclusively by a specialist.

Many patients begin to take certain pills on the advice of relatives, acquaintances, or after reading recommendations on popular sites. It is strictly forbidden to do this, since when determining the treatment tactics, it is necessary to take into account many accompanying factors, assess the risk of complications, the presence of existing chronic diseases and the individual characteristics of patients (including gender and age).

The main groups of drugs that are used to correct pressure in hypertension of the second degree:

  1. ACE inhibitors (Enalapril, Captopril, Fozicard, etc.) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (Losartan, Valsartan). They help to reduce the production and assimilation of substances that increase vascular tone.
  2. Beta-blockers (Anaprilin, Concor). They reduce the pulse, relax the blood vessels.
  3. Statins (Crestor, Simvastatin, Atorvastatin). They reduce the level of "bad" cholesterol in the blood, thereby preventing the development of atherosclerosis.
  4. Diuretics (Veroshpiron, Furosemide). Stimulates the elimination of excess fluid.
  5. Calcium channel blockers (Nifedipine, Verapamil, Diltiazem). Reduce the excitability of the muscle component in the walls of blood vessels, ensuring their relaxation.

The drugs of which groups and in what combinations are indicated for a particular patient can only be determined by a doctor: a feature of these drugs is the possible incompatibility of some of them.

In addition to pharmacological, folk remedies can be used in treatment. Most often, decoctions of oats, currant shoots and elecampane root, beet juice, tincture of a golden mustache, propolis, honey are used to reduce pressure. Popular for hypertension and aromatherapy with various essential oils.

For an urgent decrease in blood pressure, some patients note the effectiveness of vinegar compresses on the head area, collar zone, and lower extremities.

Major complications

Refusal from the systematic intake of medicines, self-medication and non-compliance with medical recommendations entail a high risk of complications. At the same time, the risk largely depends on individual indicators: in one case, the disease progresses slowly, in the other, an abrupt critical deterioration occurs.

Diseases and conditions that most often develop against the background of increased blood pressure:

  • hypertrophy of the left ventricular myocardium;
  • acute or chronic heart failure;
  • acute myocardial infarction;
  • hemorrhagic stroke;
  • discirculatory encephalopathy (provoked by a change in the blood supply to the brain);
  • renal failure;
  • retinal disinsertion;
  • aortic aneurysm.

The most common complication of the disease is a hypertensive crisis. At the same time, the pressure grows rapidly, does not decrease under the influence of the usual drugs. Violent symptoms develop, accompanied by fear of death, anxiety. This condition is urgent. If signs of a crisis appear, seek emergency medical attention.

In case of hypertensive crisis, it is necessary to call an ambulance
In case of hypertensive crisis, it is necessary to call an ambulance

In case of hypertensive crisis, it is necessary to call an ambulance

Disability with hypertension

Obtaining a disability group in the second degree of the disease is possible. It is established for persons with severe arterial hypertension, in the presence of concomitant diseases or complications that significantly affect the quality of life.

To confirm the existence of indications for obtaining a disability group, it is necessary to undergo the most complete examination:

  • general and biochemical blood test;
  • general urine analysis;
  • X-ray and ultrasound examination of internal organs;
  • ECG;
  • daily blood pressure monitoring;
  • urine analyzes according to Nechiporenko, Zimnitsky;
  • expert advice.

Additional laboratory and instrumental studies may be prescribed by the attending doctor.

Based on the data received, a decision is made on the possibility of issuing a referral for examination. In this case, the attending physician prepares the necessary package of documents, which displays all the results of the examination.

The received documentation is transferred by the patient (or his legal representatives) to the organization that conducts medical and social expertise. The submitted data are considered by the commission up to 30 days, after which a verdict is issued on assigning a disability group or on refusal.

In case of disagreement with the experts' decision, the patient can file a complaint with the ITU Main Bureau, which returns the documents for reconsideration, or with the court.


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Olesya Smolnyakova
Olesya Smolnyakova

Olesya Smolnyakova Therapy, clinical pharmacology and pharmacotherapy About the author

Education: higher, 2004 (GOU VPO "Kursk State Medical University"), specialty "General Medicine", qualification "Doctor". 2008-2012 - Postgraduate student of the Department of Clinical Pharmacology, KSMU, Candidate of Medical Sciences (2013, specialty "Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology"). 2014-2015 - professional retraining, specialty "Management in education", FSBEI HPE "KSU".

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