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Video: What Is Hyperplasia - Definition, Description, Causes And Treatment
2023 Author: Rachel Wainwright | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 01:36
What is hyperplasia
Having heard the unfamiliar word "hyperplasia" in the doctor's office, do not despair. It's not so scary if you understand the cause of the disease and start treatment on time.
What is it and why did it appear?
Hyperplasia means that in some tissue of the body (it has nothing to do with a tumor) or an organ, the number of cells has increased and this has led to an increase in the volume of education or organ.
After such an explanation, it is reasonable to ask the question about the reason for such changes. But it is not easy to answer it unequivocally, because there are many reasons. Stimulants for cell growth can be stimulators of tissue growth, any antigenic stimulus, various oncogenic substances, surgery to remove the entire organ or its part.
If we talk about the symptoms of physiological hyperplasia, then we will talk about the reproduction of the mammary gland epithelium that occurs during pregnancy. There is also such a thing as glandular hyperplasia, which occurs before the onset of menstruation. Only a doctor can understand all the intricacies, and our task is to give general concepts about the disease. Because although it refers to benign formations, there is still a possibility that the process of degeneration into a malignant form may begin.
If we talk about glandular hyperplasia, then there are several types of proliferation - cell proliferation, causing tissue proliferation, which are determined by the degree of disturbance. For example, epithelial stratification may be cytologic or not found. They observe whether there is invasive growth - the penetration of cells into the surrounding tissues, with hyperplasia it is not observed.
With an increase in the thickness of the endometrium - the inner mucous layer of the uterus, they speak of endometrial hyperplasia.
Anemia, some of its forms, can cause the multiplication of the constituents of myeloid (hematopoietic) tissue. Infectious diseases sometimes cause hyperplastic processes in the lymphoreticular tissue that make up the lymph nodes, the spleen.
Between us women
Although the name of the disease is the same, it is common for everyone, nevertheless, there are some peculiarities. Therefore, it is better to conduct a conversation in this way.
The mucous membrane of a woman's uterus is called the endometrium. Hyperplasia, its growth, is referred to as benign processes. The enlargement of the endrometrium occurs monthly, when, under the influence of estrogen, he prepares to receive a fertilized egg. In the absence of conception, excess endometrium is rejected, which is manifested by menstrual bleeding. If the process is disrupted, then the mucous membrane begins to grow stronger. The type of disease depends on how much the thickness of the endometrium has increased.
With glandular hyperplasia, the lumen between the endometrial glands is disturbed. But the tissue has a homogeneous structure, the thickness of the endometrium is not more than 1.5 cm.
If cysts are found among the tissues, then the diagnosis already sounds like glandular cystic hyperplasia.
The atypical form of the disease is characterized by a structural change in tissues, the mucous membrane grows to 3 cm, this condition of the uterus is also called adenomatosis.
Focal hyperplasia means that polyps have formed in the endometrium, in the form of separate foci. They are also divided into glandular, fibrous and adenomatous. In the focus of hyperplasia, the thickness of the endometrium can be up to 6 cm.
What is the threat of each type of disease? The danger in terms of degeneration into a malignant formation is represented by atypical hyperplasia and focal. As for the glandular and cystic hyperplasias of the endometrium, doctors consider them benign, not prone to degeneration.
The first sign that endometrial hyperplasia may have appeared is a violation of the menstrual cycle. Menses take on a painful character, most often pass as profuse bleeding. There is also amenorrhea - their absence up to six months or more. In general, endometrial hyperplasia primarily speaks of hormonal disorders, which may result in a number of other diseases, such as endometriosis, polycystic ovary disease, and infertility.
There are several treatment options for hyperplasia, it all depends on its type, how much the tissues have grown and how old the patient is. In the reproductive age, treatment is conservative: therapy using hormonal drugs. With the right treatment, the growth of the endometrium stops. But if hyperplasia has reached a significant size or gives a relapse, then you have to turn to surgeons.
Satellites of this disease are often endocrine disorders - diabetes mellitus, obesity. Women over 50 years old, overweight and suffering from hypertension are susceptible to the disease.
And men suffer too
After the age of 50 with benign hyperplasia (adenoma) of the prostate gland, about 85% of men come to the urologist. The disease suggests that a nodule or several have appeared in the prostate, they grow, squeeze the urethra and cause problems with urination. The more cells grow, the more serious the problem becomes.
The cause of the disease is called hormonal changes, the so-called male menopause. But there is no exact data on how much sexual activity, sexual orientation, bad habits, and inflammatory diseases of the genitals affect the appearance of adenoma.
Symptoms of hyperplasia in men are primarily manifested in the form of problems with urination - there is no complete emptying of the bladder. Further, everything is more complicated: a sluggish stream, frequent urges at night, while the abdominal muscles have to be strongly strained. Delaying a visit to the doctor can result in a number of troubles - chronic renal failure, urinary incontinence. And then complications follow in the form of cystitis, hematuria (blood in the urine), urolithiasis and a number of others.
If the process is not stopped, the treatment is not started, then the outcome can be rather sad: the urethra will be completely compressed. Only suprapubic puncture will help relieve the patient's condition.
Treatment of hyperplasia of adenoma depends on the degree of the disease. Medications can only help in the early stages, when the bladder is still completely empty.
Non-operative methods, in particular the use of a catheter, are used when, for health reasons, a man cannot be operated on.
The most effective method of treating hyperplasia is surgery. If the disease is not started, transurectal resection is proposed - the adenoma is removed through the urethra. Such an operation is more gentle than an abdominal one.
In general, I would like to say that one article does not cover all the nuances and symptoms of hyperplasia. The goal was to give general information about him, to show that a diagnosis established at an early stage gives every chance of a complete cure.
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Hyperplasia of the prostate gland is a benign neoplasm, an overgrowth of prostate tissue, formerly called prostate adenoma
Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland - pathological proliferation of organ tissues caused by impaired secretory function
Endometrial hyperplasia - an increase in the number of cells in the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium), leading to an increase in its volume and thickness
Itching in the anus is a modified form of pain of a physiological or pathological etiology
Itchy skin is a specific sensation that causes the need to scratch a specific area of the body. The causes of itchy skin can be local or generalized